A PRESENTATION ON THE CORONA VIRUS DISEASE (COVID-19)

Outline of the presentation
➖Introduction
➖definition
➖incidence
➖risk factors
➖causes
➖incubation period
➖mode of transmission
➖clinical features ( signs and symptoms)
➖diagnosis
➖treatment
➖complication
➖prevention
➖precaution for the sick person
➖helpline

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WHAT IS CORONAVIRUS (COVID-19)

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that cause respiratory infections. These can range from the common cold to more serious diseases such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) .

Coronaviruses are also said to be zoonotic, meaning they are transmitted between animals and people.  
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory illness that can spread from person to person.

Characteristics of Coronavirus
(a)The virus is large so it does not settle in the air but on surfaces.

(b) On a metal surface, it will live for 12 hours on fabrics, 9 hours on the hands, 2 hours

(c)The virus can not survive when exposed to a temperature of 26-27oC.

(d)It does not live in hot regions.

INCUBATION PERIOD

1-14 days up to 24 days

INCIDENCE

Coronavirus affects all ages and gender but common in older people, probably because of decreased immunologic response to infection and the metabolic alterations associated with aging.

It is most prevalent in Asia and Europe than in Africa ( Ghana)

CAUSES
The virus that causes COVID-19 is a novel coronavirus that was first identified during an investigation into an outbreak in Wuhan, China.
Coronaviruses were first identified in the 1960s.

RISK FACTORS
In Ghana, the people most at risk of getting the virus are those who have:
▪recently travelled overseas, particularly to high risk countries
▪been in close contact with someone who has a confirmed case of COVID-19

Based on what we know about coronaviruses, other people most at risk of serious infection are:

▪people with compromised immune systems (such as people who have cancer)
▪elderly people
▪Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples (as they have higher rates of chronic illness)
▪people with chronic medical conditions
▪overcrowding with infected people
▪people in detention facilities
▪very young children and babie
▪poor hygiene
▪drinking water that that contains Coronavirus

WHO IS AT RISK

▪COVID-19 is spreading from person to person in countries.
▪COVID-19 is higher for people who are close contacts of someone known to have COVID-19, for example healthcare workers, or household members.

Those who live in or have recently been in an area with ongoing spread of COVID-19.

Note :
At this stage the risk to children and babies, and the role children play in the transmission of COVID-19, is not clear. However, there has so far been a low rate of confirmed COVID-19 cases among children, relative to the broader population

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

Direct transmission : Respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Indirect transmission : By touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching their own mouth, nose, or possibly their eyes, but this is not the main way the virus spreads.

By touching an infected person’s hands or face, or by touching things such as doorknobs that infected people have touched

CLINICAL FEATURES ( SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS)

Cardinal signs
1.Fever
2.Cough
3.Shortness of Breath

Other Signs
4.Breathing difficulties
5.RunnyNose 6.Sore Throat
7.Muscle ache

  1. Fatique Less common symptoms
  2. Headache
    10.diarrhea
    11.Coughing of blood Note: Some people who are infected may not get sick at all, some will get mild symptoms from which they will recover easily, and others may become very ill.

TESTING AND DIAGNOSIS
Your doctor will decide if you need testing, based on the following criteria:
♦.you have returned from overseas in the 14 days before you feel unwell
♦.you have been a close or casual contact of a confirmed COVID-19 case in the 14 days before you feel unwell
♦.you have a fever or acute respiratory infection (e.g. shortness of breath, cough, sore throat) with or without fever
♦.you have a severe community-acquired pneumonia and no other cause of it is clear to your doctor, with or without recent international travel

♦.if you are a healthcare worker with direct patient contact and have a fever (≥37.5)
and an acute respiratory infection (e.g. shortness of breath, cough, sore throat)

Note: Call ahead of time to book an appointment. Tell your doctor about your symptoms, travel history and any recent close contact with someone who has coronavirus

Help lines:
0552222004
0552222005
0509497700
0548549679

TREATMENT
There is no treatment and vaccine for coronavirus, but medical care can treat most of the symptoms. Antibiotics do not work on viruses.
If you have been diagnosed with coronavirus, isolate yourself in your home.

COMPLICATION
1.Pneumonia
2.Severe acute respiratory syndrome
Multi-organ failure, eg .,kidney failure

3.In severe cases death

PREVENTION

1.Avoid close contact with people who are sick.
2.Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.
3.Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds.
4.Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol if soap and water are not available.
5.Thoroughly cook meat and eggs.
6.Avoid close contact with anyone showing symptoms of respiratory illness such as coughing and sneezing.
7.Disinfection and regular cleaning of surfaces
8.Regular washing of dirty clothing

  1. Exposure to the sun for at least 2 hours
  2. Put sanitizer in your pocket or bag always
  3. Drink hot water regularly
  4. Gargle of warm and salt water
  5. Avoid clouded places
  6. Leave one step or 1 meter from a person with the signs of the condition
  7. Avoid hand shakes
  8. Wipe and disinfect your phone with sanitizer
  9. Avoid contact with live animals and pets
  10. Avoid traveling to corona virus infected places or countries PRECAUTIONS FOR INFECTED PERSON
    1.Report at health facility for treatment
    2.Take your medications as prescribed
    3.Eat nutritious diet to improve your immune system
    4.Stay home when you are sick.
    5.Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue, then throw the tissue in a dust bin.
    6.Clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces. WHAT TO DO IF YOU RECENTLY TRAVELED FROM AN AREA WITH ONGOING SPREAD OF COVID-19

1.There may be restrictions on your movements for up to 2 weeks.

2.If you develop symptoms during that period (fever, cough, trouble breathing), seek medical advice and care.
3.
Inform the medical personnel about your travel and your symptoms.
4.While sick, avoid contact with people, don’t go out and delay any travel to reduce the possibility of spreading illness to others

Let’s come together and combat Coronavirus